Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Manchester United Finance

Presentation Today Manchester United is the most remarkable football club on the planet. They have been fruitful and prestige fundamentally for their donning accomplishment in the UK and in Europe where probably the best players experienced, for example, George Best, Bobby Charlton, Eric Cantona, David Beckham and all the more as of late Cristiano Ronaldo and Wayne Rooney. Manchester United is in excess of a straightforward football club, it’s a brand and they have been fruitful in advertising. In under 20 years they went from nearby to worldwide and have in excess of 650 million fans through the world.They attempted to deversify their movement during the years and the brand is additionally present in the business. Procedure Mission Statement. Manchester United needs to be the best football club on and off the pitch. Methodology a. Grow their portofolio of worldwide and provincial supporters. b. Build up the retail, promoting, clothing and item authorizing business. c. Endeavo r new media and portable chances. d. Upgrade the range and appropriation of the telecom rights. e. Differentiate income and improve edges MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE CEO : Michael Bolimbroke †Vice President of the Executive : Ed Woodward †Group Managing Director : Richard Arnold a. Executive of Finance and IT : Steve Deaville b. Executive of Venue : Karl Evans c. Executive of Legal and Business Affair : Patrick Steward d. Executive of Communications : Phil Townsend MARKETING MIX Positionning The item Manchester United is an upmarket item. It need to be not quite the same as some other football club, this is the motivation behind why they have created distinctive scope of item above football. In addition they are consistently artnered with the best, for example, Nike, AIG, Vodofone all pioneers in their segment. Item. As a matter of first importance the item incorporates giving a superb football crew that plays and wins in an energizing manner. Each season they need t o be the best. Be that as it may, there are different elements of the item including promoting, for example, the offer of shirts, and a scope of memorabilia. The item likewise identifies with TV rights, and Manchester United's own TV slot. Spot. In one regard the spot is Old Trafford where home games are played, however Manchester United additionally plays at a scope of other venues.And, obviously its items are sold over the globe, through the club's site and a scope of different deals media. Manchester United markets itself as a worldwide brand. The club likewise participates in a scope of joint special exercises, for instance with the cell phone organization Vodafone. Manchester United books, shirts, programs, keyrings and numerous different things are sold and advanced through its site. Cost. The club has situated itself at the upmarket chief finish of the market and, therefore, it will in general charge premium costs as confirm by the significant expense of a season pass to watc h home class games. . Play out a general record examination of Manchester United. See whether there is a harmony among obligation and working capital? Data There are three significant pieces of an organization's ? nancial explanations: the asset report, the salary articulation and the money ? ow proclamation. The monetary record gives a one-time preview of an organization's benefits and liabilities. What's more, the pay explanation demonstrates the business' star? tability during a specific period. MANCHESTER UNITED BALANCE SHEET. Solidified Balance Sheet*

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Character Autobiography for an acting class Essay

Character Autobiography for an acting class - Essay Example Along these lines, I can not function as a functioning, vivacious and enthusiastic individual. I am seen to be somebody with a great deal of medical issues, someone who is useless and who have no more want for a sentiment in his life. Because of my overwhelming weight my development resembles a chimpanzee. Little youngsters as often as possible get apprehensive from me around evening time and simultaneously a few kids need me to cause them to sit at my head or shoulder with the goal that they may appreciate the tallness and the virus breeze of the air at a stature of six feet and five inches. My wretchedness has made me depleted and scornful. Because of my overwhelming weight my development resembles a chimpanzee. Fundamentally my responsibility is to keep up the correspondence arranges that associate individuals around the nation or might be even far and wide. I don't work in the basic workshop rather I promote my number and individuals get hold of me through my contact number. I am typically employed by ordinary individuals to fix their telephones. My activity is to such an extent that I need to meet many individuals consistently in this manner, in some cases I get the chance to draw in myself in a battle with certain individuals when they are not paying. Based on my consistently encounters I am inclined to innocent upstanding attacks of exemplary outrage in which I will in general include into circumstances imprudently. Still my mastery and abilities give me enough cash that I may have a casual existence with my family. I need to ensure my family. For me my family is the primary inspirational power that continually reminds me not to entertain myself with little battles as outrage can blast out whenever, in any structure. I truly make the most of my time playing mind games with crooks and have some profound dull comical inclination. I may likewise be depicted as somebody incapable to excuse and not prepared to show leniency in specific situations. Section TWO: What Hapenned Today I have a task; I need to go to the Paul Bratters' home so as to fix his telephone since he educated me that his home telephone quit working; no dial tone, no approaching calls, no nothing by any means. In this way I need to go to Mr. Paul Bratters' loft so as to fix his telephone. As I gauge a moderately enormous sum hence it is exceptionally hard for me to move, and to climb five trips so as to arrive at Mr. Paul Bratters' condo was a genuine test for me. My job of a fat, undesirable and antiquated phone fix man expects me to be increasingly static. By one way or another I figured out how to scale to those five high as can be flights and arrived at Mr. Paul Bratters' condo. After that I was so depleted and tired and was attempting to get my expansiveness; in that battle, I was unwittingly making a ton of sound. Following couple of moments the entryway opened and an excellent youthful shrewd woman showed up before me wearing a yellow top with a shaggy white fur garment. I prese nted myself by saying Telephone Company. The woman in yellow top requested that I step in; I entered with my dark cowhide phone hand-off fix unit with separated contact sheets. It is a gadget for fixing an inadequate phone transfer without the need of detaching contact terminals. The contact terminals in the fix pack structure some portion of the first hand-off structure. The phone transfer fix pack incorporates a different substitution hand-off which must be set instead of the first hand-off curl. It requires some investment of ten minutes. I took a gander at my note pad and affirmed by saying, Paul Bratter. Right(1). The woman answered,

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Summer Depression Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Coping

Summer Depression Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Coping Depression Types Print An Overview of Summer Depression Summer Depression: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Coping By Sara Lindberg Sara Lindberg, M.Ed., is a freelance writer focusing on mental health, fitness, nutrition, and parenting.   Learn about our editorial policy Sara Lindberg Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on September 02, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on January 30, 2020 Verywell / Emily Roberts More in Depression Types Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Childhood Depression Suicide In This Article Table of Contents Expand Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Coping View All Back To Top Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is not considered a specific diagnosis in the current DSM-5. It is recognized as a recurrent major depressive disorder within a seasonal pattern specifier, however the term is still commonly applied. This pattern most commonly begins in the fall and continues into the winter months.?? While not as common as fall and winter depression, SAD can also affect people in the late spring into the summer months.   Summer depression, which is also referred to as reverse seasonal affective disorder and formally as major depressive disorder (MDD) with a seasonal pattern, is a form of SAD that flares up during the summertime, and typically returns every year at about the same time and resolves at characteristic times. Symptoms Unlike fall and winter SAD -- which typically presents with low energy, pervasive sadness, daytime tiredness, and decreased activity -- individuals who experience SAD in the summer, often present with the opposite symptoms, according to the Mayo Clinic. The symptoms of summer depression are often the opposite of those associated with fall and winter SAD. For most people with summer depression, symptoms begin in late spring or early summer and end in the fall. Some of the more common symptoms include: IrritabilityAgitationAnxietyRestlessnessWeight lossPoor sleeping and sleeping less (insomnia)Decrease in appetite Causes There have been many theories as to why people experience depression during the summer months. However, the research is limited, and most of the studies reference fall and winter SAD. That said, there are some specific theories that many experts refer to when considering the cause of summer depression. Most notable is exposure to too much sunlight in the summer months which leads to changes in the body’s internal clock or circadian rhythm. When this happens, your melatonin production is lower, and your sleep-wake cycle is thrown off, resulting in disrupted sleep patterns. Other theories that may explain why some people experience seasonal depression in the summer include: Increase in pollen countsHigh temperaturesLonger daysLack of a routine or structureNegative body imageExtreme heatNot enough sleepFeelings of aloneness While both winter and summer seasonal depression can affect anyone, there are certain groups of people where SAD is more common:?? It occurs four times more often in women than in menThe age of onset is estimated to be between 18 and 30 years oldFamily history of other types of mood disorders Factors That Could Increase Your Risk of Depression Diagnosis To be diagnosed with SAD or summer depression, the National Institute of Mental Health says you must meet the full criteria for major depression coinciding with a specific season, in this case, summer. Since this is a recurring seasonal pattern, symptoms must be present for at least the last two years. The guidelines further state that the symptoms experienced during the summer must be much more frequent than any non-seasonal symptoms of depression.   In order to determine if you meet the criteria, practitioners need to ask the right questions to determine if individuals presenting with depression are, in fact, suffering from a seasonal affective disorder. This can only be done by a thorough assessment of the relationship between an individuals’ depressive symptoms, time of year, and history.   Since a diagnosis requires the presence of symptoms for a two-year period, it’s important to note that you will not receive this diagnosis the first time you experience symptoms. ?? What You Need to Know About the DSM-5 Updates on Depression Treatment The presence of a seasonal depressive disorder such as summer depression can be debilitating. Like many other mood disorders, there are actions you can take to lessen the severity of the symptoms associated with summer depression.   Seek professional help. The use of psychotherapy is highly recommended to treat depressive disorders and would likely benefit any individual suffering from summer depression. More specifically, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) says the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be very effective in treating SAD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that looks at the important role of thinking in how we feel and what we do. CBT teaches you new ways of thinking, acting, and reacting to situations that worsen the symptoms of summer depression. Medication Antidepressants are a group of drugs commonly prescribed for treating depression that work by increasing levels of a group of chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters (primarily serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) which are involved in regulating mood.   The antidepressants approved by the U.S. Food Drug Administration for treating depression include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Also approved are bupropion and mirtazapine, among others. Bupropion, has an FDA indication specifically for the treatment of SAD.?? Most medications take some time before you feel relief from depressive symptoms. Your medical provider may need to adjust dosage or change medications during treatment. Seek Treatment With the 7 Best Online Help Resources for Depression Coping If summer depression is interfering with your daily activities, working with your doctor to develop a treatment plan that involves psychotherapy and/or medication should be the first step. Beyond that, there are lifestyle modifications that may help ease the symptoms and boost your mood.   Participate in regular exercise. Taking part in a regular exercise program that includes physical activities you enjoy may help decrease the symptoms of depression.?? Although any degree of exercise can potentially be helpful, to get the most benefits, aim for 30-60 minutes a day, five days a week, of aerobic and strength training exercises.Observe symptom patterns. If the summer months are bothersome year after year, consider keeping track of any patterns or timelines of when symptoms develop. This information may be helpful when seeking a diagnosis. It also allows you to create a plan for managing the symptoms.  Practice mindfulness meditation and deep breathing. Deep breathing exercises combined with a daily practice of mindfulness meditation can help you become aware of your thoughts, feelings, and body states without reacting to them or believing them to be true. A Word From Verywell Recognizing the seasonal pattern that comes with summer depression can help you find ways to better manage the symptoms. That said, if you’re concerned about your physical or mental health, you may want to consider making an appointment with your doctor to discuss any questions you may have. Being open and honest about how you’re feeling can help relieve some of the stress you may be experiencing. It also helps your doctor make a proper diagnosis. Working together, you can create a treatment plan that addresses your needs. 8 Ways to Improve Your Mood When Living With Depression

Friday, May 22, 2020

Symptoms And Treatment Of Insomnia - 1902 Words

Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulties falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up earlier than desired. Research shows that many factors-both behavioral and cognitive- are effective in treating this condition (Roth, 2007). Many of us, however, are not aware of how our behaviors contribute to sleep disruption. In order to understand insomnia, we must first become aware that many normal behaviors effect chemicals in the body, stress levels, and our quality of sleep. At night, the pineal gland produces a hormone called melatonin. This chemical controls the body’s sleep and wake cycle (Lieberman, et al, 1984). Research has shown that melatonin can correlate to many other functions (and problems) in the body besides regulating our sleeping patterns. A common use for melatonin is the treatment of sleep disorders (Jan, 1994). Melatonin supplements have been shown to be an effective treatment for jet-lag or working the night shift- basically any behavior that disrupts the body’s natural sleep-wake rhythm. When a person disrupts his sleep-wake cycle, he is prone to headaches, poor concentration, fatigue†¦many symptoms that are hallmark of insomnia. The body has an internal clock, the circadian rhythm, that reacts to many factors in the environment and then tells the body that it is time to either be awake, or go to sleep. In the morning, exposure to sunlight cues our body’s â€Å"wake† response (Jan, 1994). Physiologically, the light of the sun travelsShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Treatment Of Insomnia1172 Words   |  5 Pagesdefine insomnia, the patient takes longer than 30 minutes to fall asleep and has less than 6  ½ hours of total sleep (Edmunds Mayhew, 2014). Insomnia is seen more commonly seen in women compared to men (McCance Huether, 2014). Sleep disorders are a symptom usually of another problem; â€Å"thus a comprehensive review of the patient’s history and a thorough physical examination is required to rule out all possible causes of the sleep disturbance† (Edmunds Mayhew, 2014, p. 541). Insomnia can beRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Insomnia888 Words   |  4 PagesAlthough i t is common for adults to suffer from insomnia, there are also many children who do as well, even though, in many cases, it is not yet diagnosed . There are many factors that can lead to a child developing insomnia. Just as any human being goes through life constantly developing, so does insomnia. While most people do not understand that they can be diagnosed at any age, they see the daily symptoms happening all around them. Because insomnia can be difficult to diagnose, and the tests areRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Migraine Insomnia1636 Words   |  7 Pagestheir quest for management with over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen or Advil, which are first-line treatments for mild to moderate migraine. Sumatriptan, a prescription medication, should be used first-line for moderate to severe migraine. In patients unable to take Sumatriptan, telcagepant may be an effective alternative for acute migraine treatment. Preventative migraine treatment continues to be an area of difficulty in migraine management due to adverse side effects and limited proofRead MoreSymptoms and Effects of Primary Insomnia Essay924 Words   |  4 PagesSymptoms and Effects of Primary Insomnia Insomnia, defined as difficulty in initiating or maintaining a restorative sleep that results in fatigue, the severity of persistence of which causes clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning (VandenBos, 2007, p. 485), connected with the pineal gland in the brain that produces melatonin that works with ‘circadian’ rhythms, which in time helps control sleep (Gillam, 2009). Through use of polysomnography, researchers find the possibilityRead MoreSymptoms and Effects of Primary Insomnia Essay917 Words   |  4 PagesSymptoms and Effects of Primary Insomnia The APA Dictionary of Pscyhology defines insomnia as a difficulty in initiating or maintaining a restorative sleep that results in fatigue, the severity of persistence of which causes clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning (VandenBos, 2007, p. 485). The pineal gland in the brain produces melatonin that works with ‘circadian’ rhythms, which in time help control sleep (Gillam, 2009). By use of polysomnography, researchers find thatRead MoreAnalysis Of Michael H. Silber s Chronic Insomnia 1400 Words   |  6 Pagesdeprivation, insomnia. Michael H. Silber is a highly qualified as one of the authors because he has various different degrees. He worked for many positions, such as: American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology - Sleep Medicine, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology - Clinical Neurophysiology, American Board of Sleep Medicine, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, American Board of Electro diagnostic Medicine. In his article Chron ic Insomnia, he makes the startling claim that Insomnia is definedRead MoreSleep Disturbances And The Multifactorial Nature Of Insomnia1548 Words   |  7 PagesAge-Related Changes. The previously discussed models and hypotheses are important in understanding the foundation of sleep disturbances and the multifactorial nature of insomnia. However, it is imperative to also acknowledge the age-related changes that effect sleep architecture and sleep patterns in older adults. The medical field has defined individuals over the age of 65 as elderly, and those over the age of 75 as geriatric. Many changes involving how sleep is initiated and maintained occurRead MoreAdaptive Response to Disorders629 Words   |  3 Pagessubstances, deficiency in essential components of a balance diet, infections from disease vectors and many others. Urgent care is needed for any detection of disorders in patients because lack of treatment makes them develop into diseases. This paper highlights some o f the disorder depicted by the symptoms of the three different patients in the attached article. In addition, the article details the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnosis of the disorders in the patients. JenniferRead MoreCognitive Behavioral Therapy And Its Effects On Insomnia Symptoms And Impairment832 Words   |  4 PagesIt is unclear whether excessive thinking or stress mediates both insomnia symptoms and impairment, but therapy targeting dysfunctional beliefs about sleep has shown effectiveness for improvement. The main insomnia therapies targeting dysfunctional beliefs are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), cognitive therapy (CT), and behavioral therapy (BT). CBT includes CT, which focuses on identifying and altering beliefs, and behavioral therapy (BT), which focuses on sleep restriction and maintenance of consistentRead MoreInsomni Symptoms And Factors Essay1069 Words   |  5 PagesInsomnia Introduction Insomnia is a prevalent health complaint. About 6% to 10% of Americans are suffering from insomnia on a regular basis each year. Insomnia is predominant Among elderly people, People with chronic medical illness, and Those with anxiety or depressive disorders. In patients with cancer, insomnia is reported to be a common problem. The causes for insomnia in patients with cancer are related to psychological factors (anxiety or depression), pain, treatment-related toxicity

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Key Pieces of Collegeboard Essay Samples

Key Pieces of Collegeboard Essay Samples Life After Collegeboard Essay Samples The essay must have a prompt so you can see what it can take to adhere to the prompt. Usually, a crucial lens essay follows a typical essay format pattern. As a matter of fact, it is focused on highlighting strong and weak points of a given quote. This professionally-written plagiarism-free essay example on the subject of recycling can surely aid you with your writing, so don't hesitate to read it. An essay is a fairly short bit of writing on a certain topic. It has been defined in a variety of ways. There should be a proper sequence for the SAT essay, keep in mind that it should be divided into several paragraphs where each should be structured in accordance with the importance. It gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can read and comprehend a passage and write an essay analyzing the passage. So here are a few approaches to counter bullying at work. An outline also enables you to plan your writing by providing you a very clear awareness of direction when transitioning from 1 point to the next. There's no better approach to do so than to write. Use your common sense and attempt to estimate the answer before you begin the issue. Collegeboard Essay Samples Help! While Score Choice permits you to pick which day's scores you send to colleges, you will never be able to send only some scores from a specific test day. Your SAT score is only one ingredient. It is a significant part of your college application, but it's not the only part. The key for an ideal score on the SAT essay is to utilize your time wisely and remain centered on the endeavor. There are a few schools that still aren't certain what use they'll make of the essays. Because of this, one needs to understand how to compose a vital lens essay at the high academic level, as it reflects the overall degree of education of a student. Making a Great First Impression Another tip for students to keep in mind when tackling the essay part of the SAT is the significance of earning a wonderful impression immediately. You will need to use precise language to demonstrate mastery of English writing. Collegeboard Essay Samples The conclusion ought to be encapsulating the entire essay into one paragraph stating the thesis statement once more. Due to how it's an opinionated piece of writing and mixes facts with emotions it has an inclination to use fairly straightforward language. You may feel as if you will need to get started writing as fast as possible, but make certain you comprehend the author's argument thoroughly before beginning. In terms of the language and basi c tone of writing, it ought to be objective, without revealing any of the author's individual beliefs. An essential lens essay is a form of essay geared toward supplying a personal interpretation and analysis of a particular quotation or statement, proving one's opinion with the assistance of literature references. The introduction begins with the quote, which isn't just an ordinary sentence from the text, but a considerable statement that holds appreciable price. This kind of interpretation is known as the thesis. The kind of language utilized by every author also differs. The unregulated test prep industry doesn't do that, and you haven't any method of checking on the accomplishment of their programs. While studying for the test, learn how to pace yourself, and keep an eye on how far along you ought to be at various times throughout the test. A score report at the close of the test once you've completed a test. You don't know when they can be convenient on the test. All About Collegeboard Essay Samples Some of the greatest research paper introduction samples incorporate pr imary resources supporting the argument or research of the issue. Whether there are any main limitations of your work, you're able to also mention this in brief within the introduction. The most important point is, you don't need to wait until you find the prompt to come up with an arsenal of sorts of argument-building techniques you may use to back up your points. The language it utilizes also reveals theauthors clear unfavorable bias towards the impacts of the Internet on print media. Hopkins poetry essay leaving cert All professionals ought to be able to spot a greater purpose to what they're doing, scientists should see their research as a means to improve people's lives. Below are my five stairss I follow while trying to find a fellow. In case the written part of the SAT is about your family members, your future, another nation, your favourite type of music or anything else you are going to be well prepared. If you're a student, or anyone else who's going to do lots of writing, then you need to provide yourself with the most suitable technology, especially now, when it's virtually costless to achieve that.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cultural Diversity and Patient Care Free Essays

Knowledge of cultural diversity is key to all levels of the nursing practice. Knowledge and skills related to cultural diversity can strengthen and broaden health care delivery systems. â€Å"In 1986 the American Nursing Association (ANA) issued its first intention to strengthen cultural diversity programs in nursing† (Lowe Archibald, 2009, p. We will write a custom essay sample on Cultural Diversity and Patient Care or any similar topic only for you Order Now 11). Despite good intentions made by nursing, progress in the area of cultural diversity has been slow and sporadic. The change in the ethnic composition of the U.S. has challenged nurses to incorporate the needs of their patient into their daily nursing practice. Society expects todays nurse to be culturally competent. Earlier a focus was on transcultural nursing was to bring an understanding of the contrasts between the nurse’s own culture and of the patient. An early strategy to educate nurses about culture was to incorporate cultural education into the nursing curriculum and to have cultural questions on nursing boards and certification testing. â€Å"The necessity in preparing and assisting nurse researchers and clinicians to be able to meet the health needs of culturally diverse population takes on a sense of urgency† (Lowe Archibald, 2009, p. 15). Concepts of illness, health, and wellness are part of the total cultural belief system. Nurses need to understand; how cultural groups understand life process, how they define health and illness, what they do to maintain wellness, what they believe is the cause of illness, how healers cure and care for their members, and how the cultural background of the nurse influences the care that they provide. We read in Ephesians 4:32, â€Å"And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you† (Holy Bible, King James Version). As Christians we should show God’s love to each and every one of our patients. This article titled â€Å"Cultural Diversity: The Intention of Nursing† can be found at http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1111/j. 1744-6198. 2009. 00122. x/abstracte . How to cite Cultural Diversity and Patient Care, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Reading in the Content Areas an Example of the Topic Science and Technology Essays by

Reading in the Content Areas The Concept of Reading in the Content Areas In contrast to reading in its traditional context i.e. in the English subject, reading in the content areas simply means that school children are able to read and comprehend expository texts in content areas such as mathematics, history, science and social studies. The said texts are set apart from other type of texts by their characteristic nature that is based on facts. Further, such facts are usually presented in very technical terms utilizing multisyllabic words. Expository texts are also distinct in their structure, which vary from types like compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequencing, and many others that are logic-based (Literacy Matters.org, 2007). Need essay sample on "Reading in the Content Areas" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Undergraduates Very Often Tell EssayLab professionals: I'm not in the mood to write my paper. Because I want to spend time with my boyfriend Essay writers propose: It Is Very Easy And Convenient To Buy Essays Online Academic Writing Services Cheap Reliable Essay Writing Service Top Rated Essay Writing Service Online Essay Writing Company The process by which students interact with texts in the content areas is another subject worth delving into. The said process is a three-part continuum that involves interaction before the text is read, during reading, and even after the text has been read. Interaction before the text is read involves drawing students stock knowledge that is related to the text, setting goals and anticipating questions. Techniques for identifying words such as syllabication and structural analysis, as well as the use of context clues to comprehend words that may be too technical, characterize the interaction with text during reading. This phase is what we call reading between the lines, upon which inferences could be drawn. However, reading in the content areas also emphasizes the importance of interaction with the text after the actual reading. This is where the process of reflective analysis, synthesis of information and ideas from various sources, and interpretation takes place (Literacy Matters. org, 2007). Having explained the three stages in which students interact with expository texts in content area reading, it is important to take note that the interaction of the students with the text also happens in three levels. Primary among these is the literal level where factual information are merely read and understood. Next would be the inferential level, where students process the information gained in the literal level by relating them to previous knowledge. The third would be the evaluation level, where students are already able to conclude and develop their own perspectives based on the ideas that were analyzed (Literacy Matters.org, 2007). The cold fact, however, is that not all students are able to read in all of the said levels (Literacy Matters.org, 2007). Herein lies the importance of being able to read in the content areas, meaning in all its three stages and levels. Too many years of studying students test scores and of analyzing the reason behind failures in such tests indicate that the areas they dont understand are usually the areas they couldnt read about (Peha, 2005). According to Guenther (2005), one cant separate learning to read from reading to learn. One reads to find out something, thus reading is formed by both the content of a text and the intent of a reader to learn it. Reading does not happen in a vacuum. And it is important that the issue of elementary students need to learn to read to learn is addressed, moreover before they reach fifth and sixth grade (Guenther, 2005). Peha (2005) affirms this in saying that small reading problems in elementary levels would loom bigger as children progress in school, meaning little reading problems in elementary could even impair reading, and thus learning, in secondary and tertiary school levels. With higher school levels comes more voluminous readings and harder tasks required from what was read, thus increasing the difficulty of reading. At around 12th or 11th grade, school becomes gravely hard for children who have reading difficulties in the content areas, and the all too often response to this is just to quit reading, and worse, schooling altogether. Even the teachers themselves also admit to having difficulty in teaching such children. The said problem, however, did not arise out of the blue. Generations that have passed saw to children struggling to read in the content areas. Yet todays curriculum standards and high stakes testing brought societys focus on the issue i.e. there is an increasing number of students who needs to be increasingly proficient in an increasing number of subjects, each of which has reading as its crucial factor (Peha, 2005). Efforts to address this issue have echoed throughout the country (Peha, 2005). Yet it is still not so broadly realized that content teachers themselves, meaning those who teach content area subjects, could help struggling readers to read. By claiming this, it should not be confused that teachers in the content areas are being asked to become reading instructors. This only imply that content teachers could structure the lessons they teach in such a way that would boost struggling readers to become competent in reading content-based text (Glencoe Online, 2006). Students who could not read in the content areas could not develop knowledge in those areas. If any, educator Max Fischer (2003) makes it plain that this only makes every teacher a teacher of reading. President Bushs No Child Left Behind Act has made this responsibility of teachers clear (Fischer, 2003). Potential Impact on School Curriculum and Student Learning In writing, Peha (2005) acknowledges the fact that teachers could not possibly teach reading, even though the intention behind it is good. Practically speaking, Peha (2005) says that the existing curriculum already has no room to accommodate further additions and most teachers in the content areas could be untrained, too busy, or uninterested to accommodate such changes. With this in mind, the No Child Left Behind Act might have problematic impacts. However, if content area teachers would be well-oriented that they are not being asked to give up teaching their original curriculum to teach reading instead or to employ radical changes in their teaching practices, but that they are just asked to support content area reading in the way they structure their teaching (Peha, 2005), then there would possibly be no problem. Moreover, the focus on reading in the content areas by utilizing reading strategies would enable content area teachers to aid their students in becoming effective content readers, and thus, content area learners. Empirical studies indicate that when teachers inject reading strategies in their lessons, their students learned significantly more than those who were taught in the traditional way (Literacy Matters.org, 2007). Thus, we could expect this kind of gain as an impact of employing reading in the content areas among schools. On the part of the school, this gainful impact would be very much welcome as it would enable a school to stay afloat. In previous years, students were required to take tests that would evaluate their learning in content areas. The outcome of those examinations would become the basis of the annual yearly progress (AYP)* of every school institution. What is daunting in the AYP is that it requires a school to achieve its goals for all four targeted subgroups of students before it could be given a satisfactory AYP (Fischer, 2003). Thus, even though the general student population scores well, if any of its subpopulations do not achieve the stated yearly goal, the school will fail its AYP. Thus, the school will have to face legal consequences. (Fischer, 2003). Since the problem of much of the said subpopulations rely much in their learning in the content areas, their success in reading in the content areas could also mean success for their school. For the students, the impact of such programs would be gainful as well since reading in the content areas would, as explained earlier in this text, endow them with learning in the content areas --- something which is indeed the core of student learning. For content teachers, programs regarding content area reading would enable them to boost student achievement with rigor, relevance and to employ literacy strategies that would endow their students academic success (Pappas, 2007). In terms of curriculum and teaching techniques, programs regarding reading in the content areas will have impacts in ways that would oppose the traditional read-and-answer-the-questions approach in content area subjects (Combs, 2004). Content teachers would be expected to support their subject area while building student literacy skills in mastering vocabulary, comprehension and analysis (Pappas, 2007). In recent years, the focus on reading in the content areas has yielded much development, but several areas still have to be mended. Focus still lacks in the aspects of reading comprehension and understanding, and this tends to lessen the gain from programs in content area reading (What is the importance of content area reading instruction in schools?, n.d.). This should thus be taken into account when employing such programs. Another thing to watch out for is that content teachers may understand the importance of teaching reading in the content areas and may desire to do so. However, content area teachers who are not well-versed in basic reading instruction may still find the task intimidating (Glencoe Online, 2006). And though nowadays, various content area reading strategies are widely available in books, journals, and on the Internet, content area teachers remain confused because they lack the necessary training in the teaching of reading. One specific area of confusion lies on when to employ specific strategies (Combs, 2004). All of the impacts that were discussed above, both positive and negative, should be taken into account when attempting to develop reading in the content areas in schools and among students. Reading in the content areas should be employed with the said gainful impacts in mind, and with the young generations well-being as the main purpose for employing such. In the same way, the discussed problematic impacts should also be planned for so that only the gainful impacts would remain and be magnified. These should be done so that in time, through constant and aggressive efforts on the part of everyone concerned, reading in the content areas will produce a generation of students who have learned well in the content areas and who could use such learning to deal with the important issues in life where such learning is called for. Bibliography Combs, D. (2004, November). A Framework for Scaffolding Content Area Reading Strategies. Middle School Journal, 36(2), 13-20. Retrieved June 19, 2007. Fischer, M.W. (2003). "No Child Left Behind" Places Premium on Reading Instruction in Content Areas. Education World. Retrieved June 19, 2007, from http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/profdev034.shtml Fowler, D. (1998). Balanced Reading Instruction in Practice. Educational Leadership, 55(6,) 11-12. Academic Search Premier. NC State University Library, Raleigh. Retrieved June 19, 2007. Glencoe Online. (2006, September). Reading in the Content Areas: Strategies for Success. Teaching Today. Education Up Close. Retrieved June 19, 2007. Guenther, J. (2005, April). Book Review: Content Area Literacy Instruction for the Elementary Grades. The Reading Matrix, 5(1). Retrieved June 19, 2007. Holloway, J. H. (2002). Integrating Literacy with Content. Educational Leadership 60(3),87-88. Academic Search Premier. NC State University Library, Raleigh. Retrieved June 19, 2007.